Thursday, December 5, 2019
Quality Management Theory and Practice
Question: Discuss about the Quality Management Theory and Practice. Answer: Introduction Organizations over the centuries have been shaped and reshaped, and a lot has been written about how to make organizations competent and effectual. Management theories concerns proper management practices and strategies. These theories started emerging in the early twentieth century and have evolved through ages to present the modern management theories. The objectives of forming these theories are to present with a stable direction in understanding the experiences and determine relevancy. They also assist in communicating efficiently and learning about the world (Huarng Ribeiro-Soriano, 2014). Evolution and Evaluation Organizations and management are results of the ancient times and societies. Management theory is the evolution of peoples relationship struggles throughout history and from that, one can understand how to steer the future of formal organizations. Frederick W. Taylors Scientific Management: Frederick Taylor proposed scientific management as a process that employs the scientific method principles to management functions to determine the best ways to execute tasks and share the benefits. He opined that removal of unnecessary responsibilities from the job roles of employees would provide productive outcomes (Witzel Warner, 2015). His philosophy was based on four principles: Development of a proper scientific method for management of task execution Scientific selection of employees to determine who is best for what Scientific education and advancement of employees Cooperation and collaboration among management and labor force (Shafritz, Ott Jang, 2015). McDonalds can be taken as an example of an organization that effectively employs scientific management in its production department. In all branches of McDonalds, uniformity could be seen in their food preparation, maintenance, staff appraisals and other operational functions. Due to its ability to serve effectively standard food and services all across the world, McDonalds has been able to become one of the biggest restaurant chains. McDonalds business operations include a reward and promotion system for employees who meet goals and are recognized by management for their contribution. McDonalds very own Hamburger University is the perfect example for supporting staff trainings in organizations. At that University employees are provided with management training, operations advancement knowledge, equipment handling training and communication skills development courses. At McDonalds, every employee perform their individual job, what they are best at, and the system is uniform in all ou tlets to ensure high quality level everywhere. Uniformity can be seen in their equipments, ingredients and even customer interaction. However, the workers also fear that layoffs might happen due to exhaustion of available tasks because of improved work execution. In addition, sometimes employees feel the pressure of overload. Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Human Needs: Abraham Maslow proposed the human needs theories with the aim of capturing human behavior complexity adequately. He believed human actions and reactions exist in the direction of goal achievement. His Hierarchy of Needs is a representative hierarchical pyramid of five stages. The idea is to satisfy lower level needs prior to higher-level ones. He argued that motivation for humans comes from these five fundamental needs (Maslow, 2013). The different levels of the pyramid are as follows: Self actualization consisting of integrity, ingenuity, autonomy, problem solving and so on Esteem consisting of poise, self-respect, attainment, admiration, perks and so on Belongingness consisting of affection, friendship, familiarity, cooperativeness and so on Safety consisting of environmental security, service, assets, welfare, property and so on Physiological consisting of air, water, food, sleep, physical intimacy, stability and so on (Kremer Hammond, 2013) Tesco is a good example of an organization that follows the hierarchy needs and motivational theory of Maslow. They aim to motivate their employees and pays attention to their safety and hygiene. They encourage timely communication, delegate responsibilities and involve staffs in decision-making. There are separate forums for staff for discussions and practices rewards and recognition system. The staff has the authority to influence the menus, and has the freedom to make choices that can help improve the productivity of their organization. It also provides opportunities to its employees to contribute to their employment and take interest to improve it. Reviews display abilities and achievement of every employee, enabling identification of potential. Tesco is benefitted by assurance of better customer service along with advancing career progression for its employees. William Demings Total Quality Management: Demings is credited with the popularization of the total quality management concept, a concept that deals with implementation of total quality management and is an assortment of management practices that are used by organizations to improve their quality and productivity. It consists of 14 points on management philosophy that organizations follow for quality transformation (Gimenez-Espin, Jimnez-Jimnez Martnez-Costa, 2013). They are as follows: Create a constant reason towards improvement of merchandise and offerings Adopt the brand new philosophy Stop relying on inspections for first-class Use a single provider for any individual object for rate minimization Enhance consistently and ceaselessly in every approach Use training on the job Implement leadership Do away with worry Damage down barriers between departments Get rid of unclear slogans, exhortation and objectives Get rid of management by objectives Cast off limitations to satisfaction of workmanship Put in force schooling and self-development applications Make "transformation" all people's purpose (Luburi?, 2014) Toyota Motors is known worldwide for directly addressing Total Quality Management (TQM) and has received many prestigious awards for quality management. Toyota prioritizes customers while following the concept of TQM, facilitating involvement and contribution of all employees of the organization. They have implemented systems to back and motivate employees into making significant contributions towards the development of the organization (Mitra, 2016). They have a separate quality control group that ensures society-based projects and environmental initiatives, calling it kaizen. All these practices in Toyotas production department have ensured superior quality products and services for the company, along with improvement in all departments, both individual and service. They strive always to remove waste, over production and encourage employee participation. Their bureaucratic system helps employees contribute ideas for improvements, especially long-term ones. Conclusion Management theories are carried out to aid expand organizational productivity and service first-class. Now not many managers use a novel theory or thought when implementing systems within the workplace: They most likely use a combo of a quantity of theories, depending on the office, reason and body of workers. Nevertheless, the aim of all the organization remains the same develop and enhance productivity. References Gimenez-Espin, J. A., Jimnez-Jimnez, D., Martnez-Costa, M. (2013). Organizational culture for total quality management.Total Quality Management Business Excellence,24(5-6), 678-692. Huarng, K. H., Ribeiro-Soriano, D. E. (2014). Developmental management: Theories, methods, and applications in entrepreneurship, innovation, and sensemaking.Journal of Business Research,67(5), 657-662. Kremer, W. K., Hammond, C. (2013). Abraham Maslow and the pyramid that beguiled business.BBC news magazine. Luburi?, R. (2014). Total quality management as a paradigm of business success.Journal of Central Banking Theory and Practice,3(1), 59-80. Maslow, A. H. (2013).A theory of human motivation. Start Publishing LLC. Mitra, A. (2016).Fundamentals of quality control and improvement. John Wiley Sons. Shafritz, J. M., Ott, J. S., Jang, Y. S. (2015).Classics of organization theory. Cengage Learning. Witzel, M., Warner, M. (2015). Taylorism revisited: Culture, management theory and paradigm-shift.Cambridge Judge Business SchoolWorking paper number 01/2015.